Electrical

iPhone4cf

iphone4cf

Year: 2010

Title: iPhone 4cf

Type: website (www.apple-cf.com) , press release, and direct action

Authors: The Yes Men & students from the Parsons New School for Design via Yes Lab.

Availability: not available (www.apple-cf.com shut down), but screenshots of the site’s pages are available on Flickr, and are embedded in a slideshow below.

Page reference: Parkin, J. (2011) iPhone 4cf. followthethings.com (www.followthethings.com/iphone4cf.shtml last accessed <insert date here>)

Original

iPhone4cf

Descriptions

The Yes Men, the group of clever activist/designer pranksters ... launched a website that was a spitting image for Apple's, and professed to be announcing a new product: the iPhone4CF. ‘CF’ stood for conflict-free, and the site promised that the new phone was exactly like the normal iPhone 4, only it didn't source its minerals from conflict-ridden regions like the Democratic Republic of Congo, thereby fueling atrocities there (Source: Zax 2010, np link).

One thing Apple doesn't seem to suffer well: imitators, even those with do-gooder intentions, and especially those with a bone to pick about Apple buying minerals from countries that use those funds for wars ... On Nov. 16, the same day that Apple released the Beatles on iTunes, the Yes Men - practical jokers with a streak of cyber-activism who target ‘leaders and big corporations’ who they say ‘put profits ahead of everything else’ - launched a website (www.apple-cf.com) purporting a new iPhone4CF that looked and felt so much like a real Apple site that Apple wasted barely any time in shutting them down. But not before the Yes Men had the final word in crafting an Apple-like response that only served to inform the public further about their issues (Source: Chansanchai 2010, np link).

On Tuesday, a web site popped up to promote the new iPhone 4cf, ‘the same high quality phone as the original iPhone 4 with the added bonus of taking you one step closer to a world without conflict.’ The ‘conflict-free’ smartphone marked a departure for Apple, which has been criticized for using ‘conflict minerals’ from war-torn areas such as the Democratic Republic of Congo in its gadgets. Design-wise, the site was a dead-ringer for the main Apple site ... but by the time you got to the part where it called for the citizen's arrest of mining executives, you had to realize something was amiss ... The visually pitch-perfect site had all the hallmarks of the Yes Men. Sure enough, its URL was registered to one ‘Harold Schweppes’ at gatt.org, one of the anticorporate pranksters' early spoof sites. But then, as of yesterday morning, the iPhone 4cf site had vanished. The closest thing to an explanation was a phony Apple press release condemning the site as ‘fraudulent and fictitious, and entirely the imagination of the group of pranksters who created it’ (Source: Gibson 2010, np link).

The Conflict Free iPhone site mimics Apple’s web presence precisely, the layout and style are indistinguishable from a site Apple might produce. The text claims that the ‘new iPhoneCF guarantees to all its customers the same high quality phone as the original iPhone 4 with the added bonus of taking you one step closer to a world without conflict.’ And further reports that Apple has decided to ensure the minerals used in the production of their devices are not sourced from mines in Africa ‘under the control of rebel groups further fueling a conflict that has has killed more than 5,000,000 civilians’ (Source: MOR 2010, np link).

While that's about as much as Apple will state on the record, Yes Men crafted a clever mea culpa from Apple in its mock press release from a seemingly non-existent Apple spokesperson with a non-working number: We at Apple have acknowledged in the past that the conflict in the Congo, which has claimed many millions of lives, is fuelled in part by the provision of minerals that go into consumer electronic products, and not only Apple's. However, so-called ‘conflict-free’ certification is not a real solution, merely a very tiny part of a real solution. Regardless of whether Apple or other companies produce ‘conflict-free’ products, the Congo conflict will not end until the U.S. government chooses to enforce its own laws (Source: Chansanchai 2010, np link).

The Yes Men pulled a prank last month in which they utilized an interesting process. It started out with them standing outside of the Apple Store at Fifth Avenue in New York City, where they announced Apple’s ‘Conflict-Free iPhone’. Usually, a prank like this would stop here, with the audience being aware that Apple’s products are made from conflict minerals. However, the Yes Men took this one step further. After all of their pranks of the past, a press release from the actual company they targeted hits the news wires explaining that it was a prank, it wasn’t us, blah blah blah. Knowing this, the Yes Men released their own press release acting as Apple, explaining that it was a prank, it wasn’t us, blah blah blah. In this press release, ‘Apple’ explained that the nature of the conflict wasn’t just in the hands of their company, but ‘rather, the solution must be based in diplomacy’. They also go into how it isn’t just Apple, but all electronic companies. Essentially, the Fifth Avenue prank was to raise general awareness of conflict minerals and their usage in the electronic industry. It wasn’t a direct attack on Apple, but I would guess they performed it at Apple since it is one of the most popular electronic manufactures in the world. The real act of their mischief was with the press release where they explained this is much bigger than Apple, and even bigger than corporations (Source: Kelchner 2010, np link).

Apple wishes to inform the public that the so-called ‘conflict-free’ iPhone, promoted today outside the Apple Store at Fifth Avenue in New York City, featured on the non-Apple website www.apple-CF.com, and noted in a spoofed media advisory to numerous New York City reporters, is fraudulent and fictitious, and entirely the imagination of the group of pranksters who created it. To be perfectly clear, this product does not exist, and Apple has no connection to the group that promoted it. Furthermore, although Apple does have plans to certify its materials as conflict-free, this will by no means be any sort of solution to the situation of conflict in the Congo, nor in any way help bring an end to that conflict. Rather, the solution must be based in diplomacy. In this regard, there is a law on the books – the ‘Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act,’ Public Law 109-456, introduced by then-Senator Obama in 2005 – that demands, among other things, the appointment of a special envoy to the Great Lakes region. As of now, four years later, this has still not happened, and the Congolese continue to die by the tens of thousands. There are various possible solutions to this problem, but it is up to you, not Apple, to accomplish them. Here are some things you can do: Report the violation of Public Law 109-456 to the FBI. Visit tips.fbi.gov to do so, or call 1-800-CALLFBI (225-5324). Culpable parties involve not only the President and the White House, but the Secretary of State, who is in charge of enforcing that portion of this law that demands the withholding of aid to destabilizing nations. You might consider performing a citizen’s arrest against the above parties. Any citizen can arrest someone committing a crime, if the crime is sufficiently grave. Millions of deaths in the Congo are, Apple believes, a very grave crime. You might also consider performing a citizen’s arrest against shareholders and officers of the mining companies that have been implicated in pillaging the resources of the Congo and fueling the conflict in the Congo over the past 14 years. Why not start with John Paulson, the majority shareholder of AngloGold Ashanti, the mining company most responsible for financially supporting rebel groups and furthering the Congo conflict. His office is located at 1251 Avenue Of The Americas (at 50th Street), Floor 50. We at Apple have acknowledged in the past that the conflict in the Congo, which has claimed many millions of lives, is fuelled in part by the provision of minerals that go into consumer electronic products, and not only Apple’s. However, so-called “conflict-free” certification is not a real solution, merely a very tiny part of a real solution. Regardless of whether Apple or other companies produce ‘conflict-free’ products, the Congo conflict will not end until the U.S. government chooses to enforce its own laws (Source: Anon 2010c, np link).

The Conflict Free iPhone site mimics Apple’s web presence precisely, the layout and style are indistinguishable from a site Apple might produce. The text claims that the ‘new iPhoneCF guarantees to all its customers the same high quality phone as the original iPhone 4 with the added bonus of taking you one step closer to a world without conflict.’ And further reports that Apple has decided to ensure the minerals used in the production of their devices are not sourced from mines in Africa ‘under the control of rebel groups further fueling a conflict that has has killed more than 5,000,000 civilians’ (Source: MOR 2010, np link).

The Apple iPhone 4CF was promoted as being made out of “[…] resources and minerals that went through a rigorous auditing process” to be certified as “conflict free” ... The students [working with the Yes Men] then proceeded to build an entire marketing campaign for the iPhone 4CF, including a website, flyer, ersatz Apple employees, business cards, customers, a pre-release event, a media advisory, hotline, a press conference, and a press release ... On the iPhone 4CF website and in the press release – everything in Apple’s corporate design – the students not only gave facts about laws that are being entirely ignored by the government but called for Situationist-inspired activism such as citizen’s arrest for pertinent abettors wrapped up in the conflict mineral trade and in not enforcing existing laws. For example, they called for the arrest of President Barack Obama, who does not enforce the 2005 law that he himself introduced while in the Senate: “Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act.” They also demanded the arrest of the hedge fund manager John Paulson, whose company finances some of the worst extraction practices (Source: Mönkedieck 2011, p.8 link).

... their flyers were ... both advertisements and vouchers to act as the catalyst for the action ... filled with information and directions about how to receive an iPhone 4CF for free at the 5th Avenue Apple store. ... Consumers could take the voucher to the Apple store at [New York's] 5th Avenue where they could upgrade their current iPhone, that was not conflict free, for one that was. They relied on the fact that by imitating in appearance both Apple’s printed matter (by using its logo and font) and employees’ attire, they could convince people that the product actually did exist. And so they dressed up in printed Apple employee shirts that they had made, spread out around Midtown with their mission, and got to business. ... Eventually, as members of the group started to go in and out of the Apple store, carryin the press releases with them and setting them down in the store, Apple itself responded for real. Those that went into the store were followed and asked to leave, and employees as well as supervisors began to make it known that whatever was going on was not making them especially pleased. ... After being asked to leave the Apple store, the students staged a (fake) impromptu sidewalk press conference as fictional corporate liaisons, and brought together all the elements of their action in one final improvisation (Source: Mönkedieck 2011, p.10-11 link).

Inspiration / process / technique / methodology

Recently, Apple has been the target of activist efforts increase awareness of conflict metal and press for corporations to renounce their use. Activists target market leaders because (1) that gets attention and (2) if market leaders change their behavior, others are likely to follow. The YesMen specialize in embarrassing corporations through fake public relations messages such as news releases and web sites (Source: Anon 2010a, np link).

Made up of Andy Bichlbaum and Mike Bonanno (born Jacques Servin and Igor Vamos, respectively), the Yes Men operate by building fake PR websites for multi-national corporations and waiting for unsuspecting conference organizers or journalists to solicit speaking engagements via these sites (Source: Veldstra 2010, p.140).

The Yes Men’s work indicates an investment in this notion of humour and its liberatory or revolutionary potential. When the two describe their mission as one of changing the world, the Yes Men assume a moment of unveiling, a punchline that reveals the disjunction between the suffering of people ... and the massive profits and holdings of the multinational corporation[s] who never publicly claimed responsibility for that suffering (Source: Veldstra 2010, p.143).

We’re basically trying to change the world using creative techniques, trying to do something creative to make an impact in the media or in the world ... a prank seems like something you do for the hell of it ... a hoax is all about fooling people and what we do isn’t fooling people – it’s actually about informing them (Source: Bichlbaum in Lambert 2009, np link).

In their joke, the Yes Men literally perform another way of being, another way of living as resistant and cheeky, within a system in which conformity is the easier (and often more applauded) choice. Ultimately, the Yes Men confront a bleak situation too common under neoliberal economic models: further loss to the disenfranchised, further profit to the enfranchised, and difficulty in corralling the energy and will to address the situation, and in response dress up, take on ridiculously punning pseudonyms and perform an alternative punch line, provoking maybe a laugh, perhaps a smile, or, at the very least, a glimmer of recognition not only of the problem, but on the level on which action occurs, in which the body can speak against cynical ideology (Source: Veldstra 2010, p.152).

Emulating The Yes Men is easier said than done. It all began when Andy Bichlbaum, one of the leading members of The Yes Men – a group of culture jamming activists – instructed a class at Parsons New School for Design in New York City called The Yes Lab. The Yes Lab was formed to conduct experiments – social or breaching experiments. The students decided to address the war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), a conflict fueled by the demand for Congolese minerals resources that are essential to aerospace, military, and technology industries (Source: Mönkedieck 2011, p.1 link).

Ideas were thrown around in the group and eventually one emerged above the rest when one of the students came up with the idea to address the war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (henceforth DRC). She described the pattern of rape, torture, forced displacement, and the illegal use of child soldiers. ... They could not speak for other people, but they were interested in formulating a critique that made their position visible. They wanted to identify the closest connection they had with the conflict (Source: Mönkedieck 2011, p.3-4 link).

The group of students chose their favorite electronic company as the target of their critique – Apple. Believing that Apple should put pressure on its minerals suppliers, the group created a campaign purporting that Apple had actually done so (Source: Mönkedieck 2011, p.1 link).

They tried to connect their local situation with the global conflict. They did not just want to criticize multinational corporations, they wanted to discover which connection they had with the conflict. Therefore they would not only criticize the company and their use of conflict minerals but also integrate the consumer – including themselves – in their critique (Source: Mönkedieck 2011, p.6 link).

They saw The Yes Lab as a learning experience. It put tools and methodologies for political activism in their hands. As The Yes Men in training, they developed this action in order to highlight not only an international conflict – including the conspicuous consumption of a capitalist society and its global ramifications – but also the difficulties of acting politically (Source: Mönkedieck 2011, p.13 link).

The students developed a strategy to disseminate knowledge of what was going on in the Democratic Republic of the Congo as well as publicly make an example of a company whose advertising campaigns stress social corporate responsibility and global harmony but could and should do more in these areas of a practical nature (Source: Mönkedieck 2011, p.2 link).

Because of all that information the students developed a strategy to both promote the knowledge of what was going on in the DRC as well as publicly make an example of a company that was glibly exploiting the conflict for their corporate social responsibility campaigns. Their focus of critique was Apple’s effort to represent itself and its customers as especially socially responsible. Additionally they wanted to inform consumers that political problems could not only be solved by corporations or by consumer buying habits but by political means ... The students created a fake product – the Apple iPhone 4CF (Conflict Free) – that served as a vehicle for all the information that they had unearthed during their work ... Using the aesthetics and stylistics of Apple, their campaign was made to mirror the company and their consumers that they were subverting. They provide to the consumer, who more than likely wants to believe that consumer buying habits have a strong influence on the environment, a solution for the conflict: buy a new gadget (Source: Mönkedieck 2011, p.8 link).

The police, having acknowledged the presence of more than a few people poised to do something, had set up an area for them to carry-out a “protest” (Source: Mönkedieck 2011, p.11 link).

Discussion / Responses

These guys deserve a Nobel Peace Prize for their tireless, breathtaking and hilarious work in all areas of activism (Source: grippinglyauthentic 2010, np link).

I love the Yes Men! Another stunning example of brilliance and a a (sic) real-life drama that leaves me on the edge of my seat with a surprising and disturbing degree of humor given the catastrophic situation at hand (Source: hypoluddite 2010, np link).

The power of the Yes Men campaign comes from this mind-bending juxtaposition, and the way that experiencing these two announcements draws the user into consciousness about the modes of production without ever using the term or even mentioning capitalism (Source: MOR 2010, np link).

... the Yes Men frequently play both sides of the corporate vs. activist game, first acting as the corporation itself in making an announcement, posing as the company, and then posing again as the ‘real’ company denying that the previous action was authentic (Source: MOR 2010, np link).

Andy Bichlbaum, one of the Yes Men, spoke about the power of humor, provocation, and ‘lying in order to tell the truth.’ He recalled several of the Yes Men’s efforts including a happening that occurred just the day before involving Apple’s new ‘conflict-freei iPhone (Source: Anon 2011, np link).

Reading through the iPhone prank site, it becomes evident that its ultimate goal is not to take a bite out of Apple. As the Yes Men's fake press release notes, ‘although Apple does have plans to certify its materials as conflict-free, this will by no means be any sort of solution to the situation of conflict in the Congo, nor in any way help bring an end to that conflict. Rather, the solution must be based in diplomacy.’ That's a reasonable argument, and the Yes Men deserve credit for not repeating the simplistic view that we, the American consumer, can bring peace to the DRC by merely boycotting blood tantalum or buying the right kind of electronics (Source: Gibson 2010, np link).

Essentially, the Fifth Avenue prank was to raise general awareness of conflict minerals and their usage in the electronic industry. It wasn’t a direct attack on Apple, but I would guess they performed it at Apple since it is one of the most popular electronic manufactures in the world. The real act of their mischief was with the press release where they explained this is much bigger than Apple, and even bigger than corporations (Source: Anon 2010, np link).

Beside the reaction from Apple itself, the students received attention from the public, the police, as well as the press. The fact that critics viewed the action as irritating could be considered proof that the actual purpose of the breaching experiment/performance had been achieved (Source: Mönkedieck 2011, p.2 link).

While their intentions may be genuine, the Yes Men need to do more fact-checking before they spout off. Dave Gilson from Mother Jones makes some corrections in the content of the campaign that show the complexities of the Congolese situation and that the specific companies the Yes Men blame may not be the most effective in curtailing the violence, which is the ultimate goal of the activists (Source: Chansanchai 2010, np link).

... while the Yes Men's design and humor are spot-on, making them phenomenal pranksters, their politics are a bit simplistic, making them less than ideal activists. Mother Jones is no bosom buddy to multinational corporations, but [Mother Jones writer] Gilson ... points out that conflict minerals simply don't appear to be the root of the DRC's problem. It's ‘a conflict complicated by dozens of major players and a web of regional politics and rivalries,’ he writes, and, noting that the Yes Men plan to re-launch their site, adds: ‘Here's hoping the Yes Men work out some of these glitches before they roll out the 2.0 version of the iPhone 4cf’ (Source: Zax 2010, np link).

The Yes Men have come under intense criticism for their simplistic politics which render them less than ideal activists; their campaigns no more than impressive graphic designs and publicity grabbing stunts. Is this the only way to harvest a good crop of responsible Apple products? Or is there a more constructive NGO approach to identify what rots the core of the Apple giant? And how is Apple reacting to those NGOs whose campaigns constantly afflict the Apple brand? (Source: iphoneproj2011 2011, np link)

Are we suggesting that you give up your iPhone or any of the other gadgets that contain conflict minerals? No. We are, after all, users of this technology ourselves - at least until we figure out how to transmit our weblog directly to your minds. We are simply passing on information that isn’t exactly at the forefront of everyone’s attention. As Nicholas D. Kristof says in his Op-Ed piece: ‘It’s not that American tech companies are responsible for the slaughter, or that eliminating conflict minerals from Americans’ phones will immediately end the war. Even the Enough Project, an anti-genocide organization that has been a leading force in the current campaign, estimates that only one-fifth of the world’s tantalum comes from Congo.’ But awareness is a step toward solution. There simply has to be a better way. We should all know where the products that are a part of our everyday lives come from, what the impact is, and what it means to our future and our past (Source: grippinglyauthentic 2010, np link).

Outcomes / Impacts

... one could certainly say that the students got a lot of attention from the police, the media, The Yes Men’s peers, and Apple employees as well as Apple customers (Source: Mönkedieck 2011, p.11 link).

Within hours Apple had applied its legal muscle and shut down the website. Yes Men Andy Birchlbaum responded that, ‘Apple’s heavy handed and humourless reaction just shows where their big mechanical (and conflict-mineral-rich) corporate heart is at’ (Source: iphoneproj2011 2011, np link).

... Apple ... fired off a hostile e-mail to... [www.apple-cf.com's] service provider, and got the spot-on Apple.com imitation shut down (Source: O’Brien 2010, np link).

One idea in the ‘What you can do’ website section involves a certain well-known hedge fund manager. ‘You can also perform a citizen's arrest against shareholders and officers of the mining companies that have been implicated in pillaging the resources of the Congo and fueling the conflict in the Congo over the past 14 years,’ reads the page. ‘Why not start with John Paulson, the majority shareholder of AngloGold Ashanti, the mining company most responsible for financially supporting rebel groups and furthering the Congo conflict. His office is located in New York at 1251 6th Ave, Floor 50.’ The media alert contains a link to a Bloomberg Businessweek description of Paulson & Co., which includes phone and fax numbers. A Paulson spokesman did not immediately respond to a request for comment as to whether the Paulson office had been visited or called as a result of the campaign (Source: Delevigne 2010, np link).

In an e-mail to Jobs on Sunday evening, Wired.com reader Derick Rhodes inquired about whether Apple was using “conflict-free” materials to create the iPhone 4. Jobs shot back a reply an hour later stating that Apple was doing what it could[:] Hi Steve, I’d planned to buy a new iPhone tomorrow – my first upgrade since buying the very first version on the first day of its release – but I’m hesitant without knowing Apple’s position on sourcing the minerals in its products. Are you currently making any effort to source conflict-free minerals? In particular, I’m concerned that Apple is getting tantalum, tungsten, tin, and gold from Eastern Congo through its suppliers. Looking forward to your response, Derick. ... Jobs’ reply: Yes. We require all of our suppliers to certify in writing that they use conflict few materials. But honestly there is no way for them to be sure. Until someone invents a way to chemically trace minerals from the source mine, it’s a very difficult problem. Rhodes was inspired to write the e-mail after reading a recent New York Times piece detailing the horrific warfare in the Congo, which sells minerals to the suppliers who create components for cellphones, computers and gaming devices. Grass-roots campaigns have dubbed minerals from such origins as ‘conflict minerals’ (Source: Chen 2010, np link).

Sources / Further Reading

Anon (2010a) Apple + Conflict Metals = Trouble with Activists. prstrategyandapplication.wordpress.com 30 November (http://prstrategyandapplication.wordpress.com/2010/11/30/apple-conflict-metals-trouble-with-activists/ last accessed 30 June 2011)

Anon (2010b) Conflict minerals of Congo. aaronkelchner.com 9 November (www.aaronkelchner.com/2010/12/conflict-minerals-congo/ last accessed 30 June 2011)

Anon (2010c) Fwd: Alert: fraudulent conflict-free iPhone hoax originating from Apple address. spectregroup.wordpress.com 17 November (http://spectregroup.wordpress.com/2010/11/17/fwd-alert-fraudulent-conflict-free-iphone-hoax-originating-from-apple-address/ last accessed 30 June 2011)

Anon (2010d) Conflict free products - how that swanky new iPhone we all adore is jacking up the world. sweettooth.typepad.com 19 April (http://sweettooth.typepad.com/mst/2010/04/conflict-free-products-how-that-swanky-new-iphone-we-all-adore-is-jacking-up-the-world.html last accessed 30 June 2011)

Anon. (2011) Modern Day Clark Kents: Engaging Your Modern Superhero, tmuny.org (http://tmuny.org/connect/blog/modern-day-clark-kents-engaging-your-inner-superhero last accessed 30 June 2011)

Chansanchai, A. (2010) Apple says no to Yes Men’s fake iPhone site. technolog.msnbc.msn.com 22 November (http://technolog.msnbc.msn.com/_news/2010/11/22/5509098-apple-says-no-to-yes-mens-fake-iphone-site last accessed 30 June 2011)

Center for American Progress (2010) Raise hope for Congo. raisehopeforcongo.org (www.raisehopeforcongo.org/index.php?takeover=hide last accessed 30 June 2011)

Chen, B. (2010) In e-mail, Steve Jobs comments on iPhone 4 Minerals. wired.com 28 June (www.wired.com/gadgetlab/2010/06/steve-jobs-iphone4/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+wired%2Find last accessed 30 June 2011)

Delevigne, L. (2010)  ‘Yes Men’ pranksters call for citizen’s arrest of John Paulson. Absolute return + alpha 17 November (www.absolutereturn-alpha.com/Article/2717294/Yes-Men-pranksters-call-for-citizens-arrest-of-John-Paulson.html last accessed 6 July 2010)

Enough Project (2010) Getting to conflict-free: assessing corporate action on conflict minerals. Washington D.C.: Enough Project, December (www.enoughproject.org/files/publications/corporate_action-1.pdf last accessed 30 June 2011)

Gilson, D. (2010) The Yes Men hack the iPhone. Mother Jones 19 November (http://motherjones.com/mojo/2010/11/yes-men-iphone-congo last accessed 30 June 2011)

Giuliana (2010) Our plea to stop the use of conflict minerals. Conflict minerals:natural resources as weapons. 29 November (http://conflictminerals.wordpress.com/2010/11/29/our-plea-to-stop-the-use-of-conflict-minerals/ last acessed 6 July 2011)

grippinglyauthentic (2010) This changes everything. Agai., grippinglyauthentic.com 18 November (http://grippinglyauthentic.com/2010/11/18/this-changes-everything-again/ last accessed 30 June 2010)

Hypoluddite (2010) iPhone 4cf: conflict free iPhone. religionandtechnology.com 17 November (http://religionandtechnology.com/2010/11/16/iphone-4cf-conflict-free-iphone/ last accessed 30 June 2011)

iphoneproj2011 (2011) The new iPhone 4 cf: just an ideal?, iphoneproj2011.wordpress.com 19 April (http://iphoneproj2011.wordpress.com/2011/04/19/the-new-iphone-4-cf-just-an-ideal/ last accessed 30 June 2011)

Kelchner, A. (2010) Conflict minerals of Congo. The world wide web of society 12 November (http://internetculture.wordpress.com/2010/12/09/conflict-minerals-congo/ last accessed 6 July 2011)

Lambert, S. (2009) The Yes Men. Bomb Magazine 107 (http://bombsite.com/issues/107/articles/3263 last accessed 28 July 2011)

Mönkedieck , S. (2011) The iPhone 4CF (Conflict Free): the Yes Men address the conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Liminalities 7(4), December ( http://liminalities.net/7-4/yesmen.pdf last accessed 22 June 2012)

MOR (2010) iPhone 4cf: conflict free iPhone. religionandtechnology.com 16 November (http://religionandtechnology.com/2010/11/16/iphone-4cf-conflict-free-iphone/ last accessed 30 June 2011)

O’Brien, T. (2010) Yes Men protest conflict minerals with iPhone 4cf, Apple slaps back. switched.com 22 November (www.switched.com/2010/11/22/yes-men-iphone-4cf-apple-slaps-back-conflict-minerals/ last accessed 30 June 2010)

Smith, J. & Mantz, J. (2006) Do cellular phones dream of civil war?: the mystification of production and the consequences of technology fetishism in the Eastern Congo. in Kirsch, M. (ed) Inclusion and exclusion in the global arena. New York: Routledge. (http://mason.gmu.edu/%7Ejmantz/Coltan.pdf last accessed 23 June 2011)

Veldstra, C. (2010) Patron saint of lost causes, live on the BBC: the Yes Men, humour and the possibility of politics. Nordic Journal of English Studies 9(3), p.138-153

Zax, D. (2010) Yes Men attack apple, advertising special ‘conflict free’ iPhone. fastcompany.com, 19 November (http://www.fastcompany.com/1703966/yes-men-attack-apple-advertising-special-conflict-free-iphone last accessed 30 June 2011)

‘Conflict minerals 101’ video

- www.youtube.com/watch?v=aF-sJgcoY20

Photo credit

webdesignhot.com (nd) Vector iPhone 4. webdesignhot.com (www.webdesignhot.com/free-vector-graphics/vector-iphone-4/ last accessed 6 July 2011)

Slideshow credit

religionandtechnology.com (2010) iPhone 4cf: conflict free iPhone. flickr creative commons 16 November (www.flickr.com/photos/escapehelicopter/sets/72157625282975715/with/5183642556/ last accessed 6 July 2011)

Compiled by Jack Parkin, edited by Ian Cook (last updated July 2012). Photographs reproduced under Creative Commons license.